With most configurations this is not possible, because each Device will have its own Manufacturer ID and a unique part number; as a result, no collisions are possible. But if more than one instance of the same Device (product) is used on a given I3C Bus, then each such instance must have a separate instance ID; otherwise there would be a collision. Likewise, if any Device is using a random number for its part number (i.e., in the PID), then multiple instances from that manufacturer could collide (i.e., could have the same random value that time).
If the Controller knows the number of Devices on the I3C Bus, then it can detect this condition: the number of Dynamic Addresses assigned would be less than the expected number of Devices. If that is detected, then the I3C Controller can take steps to resolve such collisions, for example by resetting all Dynamic Addresses with the RSTDAA CCC and restarting the process, or by declaring a system error after a set maximum number (e.g., 3) of such attempts fail.