With most configurations, this is not possible; each Device will have its own manufacturer ID and part number, so no collisions are possible. If more than one instance of the same Device is used on the same I3C Bus, then each instance must have a separate instance ID; otherwise there would be a collision. Likewise, if any Device is using a random number for its part number, then multiple instances from that manufacturer could collide (i.e., could have the same random value that time).
If the Master knows the number of Devices on the I3C Bus, then it can detect this condition: the number of Dynamic Addresses assigned would be less than the number of Devices. Once detected, the I3C Master can take steps to resolve such collisions, for example by resetting DAA and restarting the process, or by declaring a system error after a set maximum number (e.g., 3) of such attempts fail.